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Immunometabolism: A Multi-Omics Approach to Interpreting the Influence of Exercise and Diet on the Immune System

Authors
  • Nieman, David C.
  • Lila, Mary Ann
  • Gillitt, Nicholas D.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Publisher
Annual Reviews
Publication Date
Mar 25, 2019
Volume
10
Pages
341–363
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1146/annurev-food-032818-121316
Source
Annual Reviews
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

Immunometabolism is an evolving field of scientific endeavor that merges immunology and metabolism and has provided valuable context when evaluating the influence of dietary interventions on exercise-induced immune dysfunction. Metabolomics, lipidomics, and proteomics provide a system-wide view of the metabolic response to exercise by simultaneously measuring and identifying a large number of small-molecule metabolites, lipids, and proteins. Many of these are involved with immune function and regulation and are sensitive to dietary influences, especially acute carbohydrate ingestion from either sugar beverages or fruits such as bananas. Emerging evidence using large multi-omics data sets supports the combined intake of fruit sugars and phytochemicals by athletes during heavy exertion as an effective strategy to improve metabolic recovery, augment viral defense, and counter postexercise inflammation and immune dysfunction at the cell level. Multi-omics methodologies have given investigators new outcome targets to assess the efficacy of various dietary interventions for physiologically stressed athletes.

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