Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite. Following oral infection the parasite crosses the intestinal epithelial barrier to disseminate throughout the body and establish latent infection in central nervous tissues. The clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic to severe neurological disorders in immunocompromised individuals. Since the clinical presentation is diverse and depends, among other factors, on the immune status of the host, in the present review, we introduce parasitological, epidemiological, clinical, and molecular biological aspects of infection with T. gondii to set the stage for an in-depth discussion of host immune responses. Since immune responses in humans have not been investigated in detail the present review is exclusively referring to immune responses in experimental models of infection. Systemic and local immune responses in different models of infection are discussed, and a separate chapter introduces commonly used animal models of infection.