Plant mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenases were analysed by two immunological strategies. The first exploited an antiserum raised to a preparation of SDS-solubilized mitochondrial-inner-membrane particles. By using a combination of activity-immunoprecipitation and crossed immunoelectrophoresis, it was shown that Triton X-100-solubilized membranes contain at least three immunologically distinct NADH dehydrogenases. Two of these were subsequently isolated by line immunoelectrophoresis and analysed for polypeptide composition: one contained three polypeptides with molecular masses of 75, 62 and 41 kDa; the other was a single polypeptide with a molecular mass of 53 kDa. The other approach was to probe plant mitochondrial membranes with antibodies raised to a purified preparation of ox heart rotenone-sensitive NADH dehydrogenase and subunits thereof. Cross-reactions were observed with the subunit-specific antisera against the 30 and 49 kDa ox heart proteins. However, the molecular masses of the equivalent polypeptides in plant mitochondria are slightly lower, at 27 and 46 kDa respectively.