Carassius RFamide (C-RFa) is a novel peptide found in the brain of the Japanese crucian carp. It has been demonstrated that mRNA of C-RFa is present in the telencephalon, optic tectum, medulla oblongata, and proximal half of the eyeball in abundance. Immunohistochemical methods were employed to elucidate the distribution of the peptide in the brain of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) in detail. C-RFaimmunoreactive perikarya were observed in the olfactory bulb, the area ventralis telencephali pars dorsalis and lateralis, nucleus preopticus, nucleus preopticus periventricularis, nucleus lateralis tuberis pars posterioris, nucleus posterioris periventricularis, nucleus ventromedialis thalami, nucleus posterioris thalami, nucleus anterior tuberis, the oculomotor nucleus, nucleus reticularis superior and inferior, facial lobe, and vagal lobe. C-RFa immunoreactive fibers and nerve endings were present in the olfactory bulb, olfactory tract, area dorsalis telencephali pars centralis and medialis, area ventralis telencephali, midbrain tegmentum, diencephalon, medulla oblongata and pituitary. However, in the optic tectum the immunopositive perikarya and fibers were less abundant. Based on these results, some possible functions of C-RFa in the nervous system were discussed.