Deposition of amyloid beta (A beta) is one of the pathological hallmarks of brains affected with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The accumulation of A beta have been observed in human myopathies with rimmed vacuoles (RVs) which might involve lysosomal function. Chloroquine, a potent lysosomotropic agent, induces muscle pathology in experimental animals similar to myopathy with RV. In this study, we demonstrate, for the first time, immunohistochemical evidence that A beta and cathepsin D, a lysosomal enzyme, accumulate in vacuolated rat soleus muscle due to chloroquine-induced myopathy. These data indicate that lysosomes are important in the metabolism of amyloid precursor protein to generate A beta. This experimental system seems to be useful not only to study basic mechanisms underlying RV myopathy but also to understand processing of amyloid precursor protein to A beta in AD.