Actively demyelinating central nervous system (CNS) lesions from a patient with acute multiple sclerosis (MS) were tested for measles antigens using peroxidase-conjugated antimeasles antibody. No evidence of measles antigens was found. Similarly reacted tissue from 2 patients with chronic MS also revealed no evidence of measles antigens. Identically treated and simultaneously tested measles-infected CNS cultures and human SSPE brain tissue stained strongly for measles antigens. The possible reasons underlying the failure to detect measles antigens in MS are discussed.