Specific antiserum to somatostatin was used for the immunocytochemical detection of this neuropeptide in human dental pulp. Immunoreactive axon varicosities were observed in the radicular as well as coronal pulp. Fibers displaying somatostatin-like immunoreactivity were detectable within radicular nerve trunks and were found to be associated mainly with blood vessels. Nevertheless, positive fibers with no apparent relation to blood vessels were also observed. No pulp cell was found to be immunoreactive. Previous physiological studies demonstrated that somatostatin may function as a regulatory peptide in feline dental pulp via a pre-synaptic inhibition of substance P release from sensory nerve terminals. It is tempting to speculate that such a mechanism may also be effective in human teeth and may be of value in the regulation of pulpal blood flow and in situations when sensory nerve fibers are activated, e.g., during pulpal inflammation.