Using the unlabeled antibody peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique at the light microscopic level, it was demonstrated that, in the amphibian magnocellular hypothalamo-hypophysial neurosecretory system, vasotocin and mesotocin are synthesized in separate neurons. A tendency to preferential location of the two kinds of neuronal perikarya is described. The neurosecretory perikarya are the origin of separate vasotocinergic and mesotocinergic axons. In the neural lobe, the pattern of distribution of the two types of axons is different. The coarse ventricular "dendrites" of both kinds of neurons are hormone-containing processes. Staining with anti-bovine neurophysin I serum suggested that the vasotocinergic and the mesotocinergic neurons synthesize different neurophysins.