NADH could support the lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsomes in the presence of ferric ions chelated by ADP(ADP-Fe). The reaction had a broad pH optimum (pH 5.8--7.4) and was more active in the acidic pH range. Antibodies to NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase [EC 188.8.131.52] and cytochrome b5 inhibited NADH-dependent lipid peroxidation in the presence of ADP-Fe, whereas the antibody against NADPH-cytochrome c reductase [EC 184.108.40.206] showed no inhibition. These oberservations suggest that the electron from NADH was supplied to the lipid peroxidation reaction via NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase and cytochrome b5. On the other hand, NADPH-supported lipid peroxidation was strongly inhibited by the antibody against NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, confirming the participation of this this flavoprotein in the NADPH-dependent reaction. In the presence of both ADP-Fe and ferric ions chelated by EDTA(EDTA-Fe), NADH-dependent lipid peroxidation was highly stimulated up to the level of the NADPH-dependent reaction. In this case, the antibody against cytochrome b5 could not inhibit the reaction, while the antibody against NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase did inhibit it, suggesting the direct transfer of electrons from NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase to EDTA-Fe complex.