Glyphosate is the most widespread herbicide and its global use is steadily increasing. Although glyphosate is considered to have low toxicity, its wide application has raised concerns about its effects on human health. The extensive use of glyphosate has risen a need of its continuous monitoring in drinking and surface waters to assure in accordance with the set standards. Within the present study, we have developed a novel assay for the on-site detection of glyphosate by combining flow-through technology with the high specificity of immunorecognition. The proposed biosensing system was based on the detection of fluorescence signal generated by the quantitative replacement of glyphosate in antigen-antibody complex with IgY-type anti-glyphosate antibodies on microbeads by synthetic 5-carboxytetramethylrhodamine (5-TAMRA) conjugated glyphosate. The working range of this assay was in low millimolar range and the time required for glyphosate detection around 0.5 h. The applicability of the immunoassay for glyphosate detection in surface water was tested and the biosensor results were validated with high-performance liquid chromatography.