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Immuno-analysis of microparticles: Probing at the limits of detection

Authors
  • Latham, SL
  • Tiberti, N
  • Gokoolparsadh, N
  • Holdaway, K
  • Couraud, PO
  • Grau, GER
  • Combes, V
Publication Date
Oct 07, 2015
Source
UTS Institutional Repository
Keywords
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Unknown
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Abstract

Microparticle (MP) research is clouded by debate regarding the accuracy and validity of flow cytometry (FCM) as an analytical methodology, as it is influenced by many variables including the pre-analytical conditions, instruments physical capabilities and detection parameters. This study utilises a simplistic in vitro system for generating MP, and through comparative analysis with immuno-electron microscopy (Immuno-EM) assesses the strengths and limitations of probe selection and high-sensitivity FCM. Of the markers examined, MP were most specifically labelled with phosphatidylserine ligands, annexin V and lactadherin, although only ∼60% MP are PS positive. Whilst these two ligands detect comparable absolute MP numbers, they interact with the same population in distinct manners; annexin V binding is enhanced on TNF induced MP. CD105 and CD54 expression were, as expected, consistent and enhanced following TNF activation respectively. Their labelling however accounted for as few as 30-40% of MP. The greatest discrepancies between FCM and I-EM were observed in the population solely labelled for the surface antigen. These findings demonstrate that despite significant improvements in resolution, high-sensitivity FCM remains limited in detecting small-size MP expressing low antigen levels. This study highlights factors to consider when selecting endothelial MP probes, as well as interpreting and representing data.

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