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Immunoaffinity solid-phase extraction for the trace-analysis of low-molecular-mass analytes in complex sample matrices.

  • Delaunay, N
  • Pichon, V
  • Hennion, M C
Published Article
Journal of chromatography. B, Biomedical sciences and applications
Publication Date
Aug 04, 2000
PMID: 10997702


Immunoaffinity solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents, so-called immunosorbents (ISs), are based upon molecular recognition using antibodies. Thanks to the high affinity and high selectivity of the antigen-antibody interaction, they allow a high degree of molecular selectivity and have shown to be a unique tool in the sample preparation area these last few years. Extraction and clean-up of complex biological and environmental aqueous samples are achieved in the same step and from large volumes when required. Their application to extracts from solid matrixes is solvent-free and more simple than any other clean-up procedure. Single analytes can be targeted, but since an antibody can also bind one or more analytes having structure similar to the one used for its preparation, ISs have been developed for targeting a single analyte and its metabolites. The cross-reactivity was also exploited for developing ISs that could selectively extract a whole class of structurally related compounds. This review describes the current technology used for the synthesis of the ISs, their properties and their field of application. The different parameters governing the antigen-antibody interactions and the solid-phase extraction process are discussed. Emphasis is given to the optimisation of the SPE sequence, especially to the desorption and regeneration steps. The importance of the capacity and its relationship with the analytes recovery and breakthrough volumes is highlighted for class-specific ISs. Multi-class-selective ISs are also presented. Validation studies are reviewed using various certified reference materials. Relevant examples, involving combination with chromatography in both off-line and on-line mode, illustrate the high selectivity provided in various complex matrixes. Miniaturisation is also described, since it allows high throughput of samples.

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