Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of rainbow trout fry syndrome has become a widespread fish pathogen in freshwater aquaculture worldwide. In this study, a low molecular mass fraction (P25-33), with an approximate weight of 25-33 kDa, was identified among F. psychrophilum strains in an immunoblotting analysis with anti-F. psychrophilum sera. The immunogenic efficacy of the isolated and extracted P25-33 was investigated in two intraperitoneal immunization trials with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). The first trial included immunizations using P25-33 with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and the second trial included immunizations using P25-33, formalin-inactivated whole and sonicated F. psychrophilum cell preparations without FCA. In both trials, antibody titres against F. psychrophilum were analysed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the efficacy of the immunizations was determined by a challenge with F. psychrophilum. The P25-33 was shown to give rise to a protective immune response in rainbow trout after immunization with FCA, but not without FCA when a low concentration of P25-33 was used. Instead formalin-inactivated whole and sonicated cells of F. psychrophilum were able to protect the immunized fish more effectively when immunized without FCA. The results suggest that whole or sonicated F. psychrophilum cells could be better candidates for a cost-effective water-based injection vaccine than the immunogenic fraction.