Stressful conditions interfere with immune response. One of the principal mechanisms is activation of hypothalamo-pituitary-suprarenal axis by central serotoninergic and adrenergic pathways. Alternative mechanisms bypassing the axis also take part in stress-induced immunomodulation. Immunosuppression caused by repeated restraints or over-crowding was usually accompanied by increased metabolism of serotonin in the brain (as indicated by increased level of its metabolite, 5-HIAA) and by increased levels of corticosterone in plasma. Changes in lymphatic tissues of stressed animals that result in suppression of immune response apparently "outlive" fluctuating changes in neurotransmitter and corticosterone levels. Drugs that alter serotoninergic or adrenergic transmission interfere with immunosuppressive effect of stress either synergistically (augmenting suppression) or antagonistically (preventing it). Since immunocompetent cells possess serotoninergic and adrenergic receptors, such drugs may exert their effect either via central neuroendocrine mechanisms, or by direct effects on immunocompetent cells.