Immune reconstitution in HIV-infected patients remains a potential mechanism to explain delayed disease progression and increased survival following suppressive therapy. Many discrepancies remain to be studied. Is an immune response to HIV protective? Why are anti-HIV CD4 responses lost so quickly in progressors and how can they be restored? What is the damage to the immune system that occurs early in disease and why can it not be overcome by simply controlling viral replication? Will management of immune reconstitution be used in future adjunct treatment strategies (vaccine or STI)? Because HAART is not the answer to long-term management of HIV throughout the world, the recovery of immune function and it's potential to control viral replication remains a key goal in the long-term management of HIV-infected persons.