A spin-membrane immunoassay has been employed to examine the immune reactivity of whole serum from patients with chronic-progressive multiple sclerosis (CPMS) against liposomes containing ganglioside GM1. Exposure to serum resulted in complement-mediated lysis of the GM1-liposomes. No lysis occurred with liposomes devoid of ganglioside. The mean (+/- S.E.M.) lysis values were 52.6 (+/- 9.8)% for fifteen CPMS patients and 32.9 (+/- 7.2)% for nine controls. The difference between the means was highly significant (student's t-test, P less than 0.0001), indicating increased anti-ganglioside immunity in patients with CPMS.