Immune cells are attractive targets for therapy as they are direct participants in a variety of diseases. Delivering a therapeutic agent only to cells that act on a disease by distinguishing them from other cells has the advantage of concentrating the therapeutic effect and lowering systemic side effects. Distinguishing each immune cell from other immune cells to deliver substances, including drugs and genes, can be achieved using nanotechnology. And also nanoparticles can ensure in vivo stability and sustained drug release. In addition, there is an ease of surface modification, which is an important characteristic that can be utilized in targeted drug delivery systems. This characteristic allows us to utilize various properties that are specifically expressed in each immune cell. A number of studies have delivered various substances specifically to immune cells through surface engineering with active target ligands that can target each immune cell and enzyme-responsive coating, and demonstrated high therapeutic effects compared to conventional treatments. Progress in research on target delivery has been suggested to be a breakthrough for the treatments of various diseases, including cancer treatment.