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Imaging features of skeletal muscle lymphoma: a case report and literature review

Authors
  • Gao, Shuxi1
  • Shu, Hong2
  • Yang, Hua1
  • 1 Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110004, Republic of China , Shenyang (Taiwan)
  • 2 Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, Republic of China , Shenyang (Taiwan)
Type
Published Article
Journal
BMC Medical Imaging
Publisher
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Sep 26, 2021
Volume
21
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s12880-021-00667-4
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Musculoskeletal imaging
License
Green

Abstract

BackgroundDiffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), occurring predominantly in older people. Skeletal muscle lymphoma is a rare form of DLBCL, most frequently affecting the thigh, upper extremities, calf, and pelvis.Case presentationWe report a case of skeletal muscle DLBCL that was diagnosed using ultrasound (US)-guided biopsy. A 70-year-old man presented with progressive swelling and pain in the left lower extremity and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and serum C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, and CA125 levels. US, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT) showed diffuse lesions in several muscles of the left lower extremity. Positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) showed FDG-uptake in the affected muscles. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and achieved a good response. A systematic review of the literature published between 1992 and 2019 was conducted to investigate the role of imaging, including imaging-guided biopsy, in the diagnosis of skeletal muscle lymphoma.ConclusionsSkeletal muscle lymphoma is rare. US and MRI features include enlargement of muscular structures, with preservation of the architecture of the tissue and surrounding anatomical structures. Definitive diagnosis relies on histological and immunohistological analysis of a sample obtained through imaging-guided biopsy.

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