Many chemotherapy agents are toxic to the heart, such that increasing numbers of cancer survivors are now living with the potentially lethal cardiovascular consequences of their treatment. Earlier and more sensitive detection of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity may allow improved treatment strategies and increase long-term survival. Lipophilic cation positron emission tomography (PET) tracers may be suitable for early detection of cardiotoxicity. This study aims to evaluate an 18F-labelled lipophilic phosphonium cation e.g. 18F-Mitophos, as a cardiac imaging agent, comparing it to leading PET and SPECT lipophilic cationic tracers before further assessing its potential for imaging cardiotoxicity in an acute doxorubicin (DOX) model.