, IL-37, and IL-38. Similar to IL-1, IL-36 cytokines are initiators and amplifiers of inflammation, whereas both IL-37 and IL-38 display anti-inflammatory activities. A few studies have outlined the role played by these cytokines in several inflammatory diseases. For instance, IL-36 agonists seem to be relevant for the pathogenesis of skin psoriasis whereas, despite being expressed within the synovial tissue, their silencing or overexpression do not critically influence the course of arthritis in mice. In this review, we will focus on the state of the art of the molecular features and biological roles of IL-36, IL-37, and IL-38 in representative skin- and joint-related inflammatory diseases, namely psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis. We will then offer an overview of the therapeutic potential of targeting the IL-36 axis in these diseases, either by blocking the proinflammatory agonists or enhancing the physiologic inhibitory feedback on the inflammation mediated by the antagonists IL-37 and IL-38.