Mainly known for its role in immune defense and inflammation, interleukin 22 (IL-22) has emerged over the past decade as a cytokine involved in the adaptation of stem/progenitor cell activity for tissue homeostasis and repair. IL-22 is present in the brain, which harbors neural stem cells (NSC) in specific niches of which the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) is the most important. In this study, we examined a possible effect of IL-22 on NSC in the adult mouse brain. We demonstrate that the IL-22 receptor is expressed in the V-SVZ, mainly in NSC characterized by their SOX2 expression. Addition of IL-22 to V-VSZ cell cultures resulted in an increase in NSC self-renewal, associated with a shift in NSC division mode towards symmetric proliferative divisions at the expense of differentiative divisions. Conversely, loss of IL-22 in knockout mice led to a decrease in neurosphere yield, suggesting a reduction in the NSC population, which was confirmed by the decrease in cells retaining BrdU labeling in IL-22 knockout mice. Our study supports that IL-22 is involved in the development and/or maintenance of V-VSZ NSC and opens new avenues to further investigate the role of IL-22 in NSC biology in health and disease.