We have previously shown that vaccination of BALB/c mice with a combination of BCG plus killed Leishmania promastigotes, applied by the i.p. route 10 and 3 days before Trypanosoma cruzi inoculation, prolonged their survival and decreased their parasitaemia. In the present study we show that the BCG-Leishmania vaccine induced higher levels of circulating IFN-gamma in acute and chronic infection of mice [on day 25 and 40 post-infection (p.i.) respectively], in comparison to unvaccinated animals (PBS-treated). Though the IFN-gamma mRNA content of spleen cells of vaccinated and infected mice (on day 25 p.i.) was similar to that of unvaccinated animals, the BCG-Leishmania vaccine enhanced significantly the production of IFN-gamma by spleen cells stimulated with T. cruzi antigens. This effect was observed to a lower extent in BCG- and Leishmania-treated mice. The BCG-Leishmania vaccine reduced the expression of the IL-10 mRNA of splenocytes as soon as day 12 p.i., before the peak parasitaemia. Such this effect was not observed in BCG- or Leishmania-treated animals. On day 25 p.i., the BCG plus Leishmania- or BCG-treatment of mice abolished the capacity of spleen cells to produce IL-10 in response to T. cruzi antigens. The levels of mIL-4 RNA and protein production were not modified in any group of mice. T. cruzi infection in BCG-Leishmania-vaccined mice stimulated an early and high production of IL-12 transcripts in spleen cells during the acute phase of the infection, that was prolonged during the chronic phase of infection. This effect was weaker or absent in BCG- and Leishmania-treated animals, respectively. These results indicate that the BCG-Leishmania vaccine stimulates the production of IL-12 and IFN-gamma, but inhibits that of IL-10 and is without effect on IL-4 when mice are infected with T. cruzi. This highlights the key role of endogenously produced IFN-gamma, IL-10 and IL-12 in the control of T. cruzi acute and chronic infection in mice and the favorable modulation of their balance by a vaccination combining BCG and Leishmania.