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IFITM3 functions as a PIP3 scaffold to amplify PI3K signalling in B cells.

Authors
  • Lee, Jaewoong
  • Robinson, Mark E
  • Ma, Ning
  • Artadji, Dewan
  • Ahmed, Mohamed A
  • Xiao, Gang
  • Sadras, Teresa
  • Deb, Gauri
  • Winchester, Janet
  • Cosgun, Kadriye Nehir
  • Geng, Huimin
  • Chan, Lai N
  • Kume, Kohei
  • Miettinen, Teemu P
  • Zhang, Ye
  • Nix, Matthew A
  • Klemm, Lars
  • Chen, Chun Wei
  • Chen, Jianjun
  • Khairnar, Vishal
  • And 9 more
Publication Date
Dec 01, 2020
Source
eScholarship - University of California
Keywords
License
Unknown
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Abstract

Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) has previously been identified as an endosomal protein that blocks viral infection1-3. Here we studied clinical cohorts of patients with B cell leukaemia and lymphoma, and identified IFITM3 as a strong predictor of poor outcome. In normal resting B cells, IFITM3 was minimally expressed and mainly localized in endosomes. However, engagement of the B cell receptor (BCR) induced both expression of IFITM3 and phosphorylation of this protein at Tyr20, which resulted in the accumulation of IFITM3 at the cell surface. In B cell leukaemia, oncogenic kinases phosphorylate IFITM3 at Tyr20, which causes constitutive localization of this protein at the plasma membrane. In a mouse model, Ifitm3-/- naive B cells developed in normal numbers; however, the formation of germinal centres and the production of antigen-specific antibodies were compromised. Oncogenes that induce the development of leukaemia and lymphoma did not transform Ifitm3-/- B cells. Conversely, the phosphomimetic IFITM3(Y20E) mutant induced oncogenic PI3K signalling and initiated the transformation of premalignant B cells. Mechanistic experiments revealed that IFITM3 functions as a PIP3 scaffold and central amplifier of PI3K signalling. The amplification of PI3K signals depends on IFITM3 using two lysine residues (Lys83 and Lys104) in its conserved intracellular loop as a scaffold for the accumulation of PIP3. In Ifitm3-/- B cells, lipid rafts were depleted of PIP3, which resulted in the defective expression of over 60 lipid-raft-associated surface receptors, and impaired BCR signalling and cellular adhesion. We conclude that the phosphorylation of IFITM3 that occurs after B cells encounter antigen induces a dynamic switch from antiviral effector functions in endosomes to a PI3K amplification loop at the cell surface. IFITM3-dependent amplification of PI3K signalling, which in part acts downstream of the BCR, is critical for the rapid expansion of B cells with high affinity to antigen. In addition, multiple oncogenes depend on IFITM3 to assemble PIP3-dependent signalling complexes and amplify PI3K signalling for malignant transformation.

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