Despite accumulating evidence demonstrating the essential roles played by neuropeptides, it has proven challenging to use this information to develop therapeutic strategies. Peptidergic signaling can involve juxtacrine, paracrine, endocrine, and neuronal signaling, making it difficult to define physiologically important pathways. One of the final steps in the biosynthesis of many neuropeptides requires a single enzyme, peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), and lack of amidation renders most of these peptides biologically inert. PAM, an ancient integral membrane enzyme that traverses the biosynthetic and endocytic pathways, also affects cytoskeletal organization and gene expression. While mice, zebrafish, and flies lacking Pam (PamKO/KO ) are not viable, we reasoned that cell type-specific elimination of Pam expression would generate mice that could be screened for physiologically important and tissue-specific deficits. Conditional PamcKO/cKO mice, with loxP sites flanking the 2 exons deleted in the global PamKO/KO mouse, were indistinguishable from wild-type mice. Eliminating Pam expression in excitatory forebrain neurons reduced anxiety-like behavior, increased locomotor responsiveness to cocaine, and improved thermoregulation in the cold. A number of amidated peptides play essential roles in each of these behaviors. Although atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is not amidated, Pam expression in the atrium exceeds levels in any other tissue. Eliminating Pam expression in cardiomyocytes increased anxiety-like behavior and improved thermoregulation. Atrial and serum levels of ANP fell sharply in PAM myosin heavy chain 6 conditional knockout mice, and RNA sequencing analysis identified changes in gene expression in pathways related to cardiac function. Use of this screening platform should facilitate the development of therapeutic approaches targeted to peptidergic pathways.