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Identification and validation of a hypoxia-related prognostic and immune microenvironment signature in bladder cancer

  • Sun, Xianchao1
  • Zhou, Zhen1
  • Zhang, Ying2
  • Wang, Jinyou2
  • Zhao, Xiaofeng3
  • Jin, Liang1
  • Zhai, Tingshuai1
  • Liu, Xiang1, 4
  • Zhang, Jiaxin1
  • Mei, Wangli1
  • Zhang, Bihui1
  • Luo, Ming1
  • Yao, Xudong1
  • Ye, Lin1
  • 1 Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200072, China , Shanghai (China)
  • 2 The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032, China , Hefei (China)
  • 3 Karamay Central Hospital, Karamay, Xinjiang, 834000, China , Karamay (China)
  • 4 Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200060, China , Shanghai (China)
Published Article
Cancer Cell International
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
May 07, 2021
DOI: 10.1186/s12935-021-01954-4
Springer Nature


BackgroundBladder cancer is the leading causes of cancer-associated mortality and seriously affects population health. Hypoxia plays a key role in tumor development and immune escape, which contributes to malignant behaviors.MethodsIn this study, we analyzed the RNA-seq and clinical information of bladder cancer patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. To investigate the hypoxia-related prognostic and immune microenvironment in bladder cancer, we constructed a hypoxia-related risk model for overall survival (OS). The RNA-seq and clinical data of bladder cancer patients from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were used as validation sets.ResultsThe hypoxia-related risk signature was significantly correlated with clinical outcomes and could independently predict OS outcomes. Furthermore, the hypoxia-related risk signature could effectively reflected the levels of immune cell type fractions and the expression of critical immune checkpoint genes were higher in the high-risk group compared to the low-risk group. We also validated the expression levels of the prognostic genes in bladder cancer and paracancerous tissue samples through qRT-PCR analysis.ConclusionWe established a 7 hypoxia-related gene (HRG) signature that can be used as an independent clinical predictor and provided a potential mechanism in bladder cancer immunotherapy.

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