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Identification of sulfenylated cysteines in Arabidopsis thaliana proteins using a disulfide-linked peptide reporter

  • Wei, Bo
  • Willems, Patrick
  • Huang, Jingjing
  • Tian, Caiping
  • Yang, Jing
  • Messens, Joris
  • Van Breusegem, Frank
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2020
DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2020.00777
Ghent University Institutional Archive
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In proteins, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) reacts with redox-sensitive cysteines to form cysteine sulfenic acid, also known asS-sulfenylation. These cysteine oxidation events can steer diverse cellular processes by altering protein interactions, trafficking, conformation, and function. Previously, we had identifiedS-sulfenylated proteins by using a tagged proteinaceous probe based on the yeast AP-1-like (Yap1) transcription factor that specifically reacts with sulfenic acids and traps them through a mixed disulfide bond. However, the identity of theS-sulfenylated amino acid residues within a protein remained enigmatic. By using the same transgenic YAP1C probe, we present here a technological advancement to identifyin situsulfenylated cysteine sites inArabidopsis thalianacells under control condition and oxidative stress. Briefly, the total extract of transgenic YAP1CA. thalianacells was initially purified on IgG-Sepharose beads, followed by a tryptic digest. Then, the mixed disulfide-linked peptides were further enriched at the peptide level on an anti-YAP1C-derived peptide (C598SEIWDR) antibody. Subsequent mass spectrometry analysis with pLink 2 identified 1,745 YAP1C cross-linked peptides, indicating sulfenylated cysteines in over 1,000 proteins. Approximately 55% of these YAP1C-linked cysteines had previously been reported as redox-sensitive cysteines (S-sulfenylation,S-nitrosylation, and reversibly oxidized cysteines). The presented methodology provides a noninvasive approach to identify sulfenylated cysteines in any species that can be genetically modified.

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