Pulmonary atresia (PA) is a rare congenital heart defect (CHD) with complex manifestations and a high mortality rate. Since the genetic determinants in the pathogenesis of PA remain elusive, a thorough identification of the genetic factors through whole exome sequencing (WES) will provide novel insights into underlying mechanisms of PA. We performed WES data from PA/VSD (n = 60), PA/IVS (n = 20), TOF/PA (n = 20) and 100 healthy controls. Rare variants and novel genes were identified using variant-based association and gene-based burden analysis. Then we explored the expression pattern of our candidate genes in endothelium cell lines, pulmonary artery tissues, and embryonic hearts. 56 rare damage variants of 7 novel candidate genes ( DNAH10, DST, FAT1, HMCN1, HNRNPC, TEP1, and TYK2 ) were certified to have function in PA pathogenesis for the first time. In our research, the genetic pattern among PA/VSD, PA/IVS and TOF/PA were different to some degree. Taken together, our findings contribute new insights into the molecular basis of this rare congenital birth defect.