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Identification of Isolates of Clostridium perfringens Types C and D by Agglutination and Fluorescent-Antibody Methods

  • Takayoshi Yamagishi
  • Jun Yoshizawa
  • Mitsuteru Kawai
  • Nagaki Seo
  • Shoki Nishida
Publication Date
May 01, 1971


Agglutination and fluorescent-antibody methods were employed for screening Clostridium perfringens types C and D from 393 isolates of this organism. All of 50 strains which were isolated in Japan and were agglutinable with an antiserum prepared against a stock strain of type C no. 3182 toxigenically belonged to type C, but the antiserum showed no cross-agglutination with any of type C strains isolated in Denmark. All of the latter strains, however, were agglutinated by an antiserum prepared against a Danish strain, CWC11. Of 64 strains, showing heat-labile agglutinability by type D antiserum L9, 22 strains were toxigenically identified as type D strains which can be divided into three groups by the heat-stable antigens; no strains which were L-agglutination-positive but O-agglutination-negative were epislon-toxigenic. All of 13 strains, the heat-stable antigen of which was agglutinable by a type D antiserum VX81, were toxigenically type D strains. The results of fluorescent-antibody tests were almost in agreement with those of agglutination test with type C strains and completely with those of the O-agglutination test with type D strains. No beta-, epsilon- or delta-toxigenicity could be demonstrated in strains which were not agglutinated by our test sera for types C and D strains. Further examination of cultural properties of Japanese and Danish type C strains revealed that the two groups were considerably different in urease production, capsule formation, and delta- and alpha-toxigenicities.

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