Due to high prevalence and slow progression of prostate cancer, primary prevention appears to be attractive strategy for its eradication. During the last decade, curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a natural compound from the root of turmeric (Curcuma longa), was described as a potent chemopreventive agent. Curcumin exhibits anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and antioxidant properties in various cancer cell models. This study was designed to identify proteins involved in the anticancer activity of curcumin in androgen-dependent (22Rv1) and -independent (PC-3) human prostate cancer cell lines using two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Out of 425 differentially expressed spots, we describe here the MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of 192 spots of interest, selected by their expression profile. This approach allowed the identification of 60 differentially expressed proteins (32 in 22Rv1 cells and 47 in PC-3 cells). Nineteen proteins are regulated in both cell lines. Further bioinformatic analysis shows that proteins modulated by curcumin are implicated in protein folding (such as heat-shock protein PPP2R1A; RNA splicing proteins RBM17, DDX39; cell death proteins HMGB1 and NPM1; proteins involved in androgen receptor signaling, NPM1 and FKBP4/FKBP52), and that this compound could have an impact on miR-141, miR-152, and miR-183 expression. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that curcumin is an interesting chemopreventive agent as it modulates the expression of proteins that potentially contribute to prostate carcinogenesis.