We have identified cells in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster that are required to be of female genotype for receptivity to copulation with males. To do this, we determined experimental conditions in which female flies virtually always copulate, then measured the minimum amount of male courtship that is required to stimulate females to indicate their receptivity to copulation. We then observed gynandromorphs with female genitalia to determine whether the sex mosaics elicited at least the minimum amount of courtship and, if so, whether they copulated. By analyzing these gynandromorphs, in which the genotype of external and internal tissues could be ascertained, we were able to identify a group of cells in the dorsal anterior brain that, when bilaterally female, is necessary and sufficient for receptivity to copulation. This group of cells is anatomically distinct from those that are required to be of male genotype for the performance of courtship behaviors.