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Identification of mycotoxins produced by species of Fusarium and Stachybotrys obtained from Eastern Europe.

Authors
  • Szathmary, C I
  • Mirocha, C J
  • Palyusik, M
  • Pathre, S V
Type
Published Article
Journal
Applied and environmental microbiology
Publication Date
Oct 01, 1976
Volume
32
Issue
4
Pages
579–584
Identifiers
PMID: 988785
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Isolates of Fusarium and Stachybotrys spp. and crude extracts from these fungi were obtained from Hungary and the U.S.S.R. and used for the evaluation of the mycotoxins they produced. The cultures were grown on millet and oats and extracted in Budapest, Hungary (Veterinary Medical Research Institute) and chemically analyzed at the University of Minnesota using thin-layer chromatography (TLC), gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the rat skin bioassay. Zearalenone was found in most of the Fusarium cultures, T-2 toxin, neosolaniol, T-2 tetraol, and HT-2 toxin were found in extracts of Fusarium poae and F. sporotrichioies. A special effort was made to isolate the steroid-like toxins reported in the early Russian literature as sporofusarin and poaefusarin. None of the extracts from the Fusarium species yielded poaefusarin or sporofusarin when analyzed by our chemical methods or by those of L.E. Olifson, S.M. Kenina, and V.L. Kartashova, 1972. We therefore accounted for the toxicity of the Fusarium extracts as due to the 12,13,epoxytrichothecenes. One culture of Stachybotrys alternans yielded a macrocyclic ester of 12,13-epoxytrichothecene which, upon hydrolysis, yielded verrucarol; a steroid-like molecule (SB-3) was also isolated. The former had skin-irritant activity but SB-3 did not; the latter exhibited cardiac activity on the heart of the cockroach.

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