BackgroundAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the predominant type of inherited kidney disorder, occurs due to PKD1 and PKD2 gene mutations. ADPKD diagnosis is made primarily by kidney imaging. However, molecular genetic analysis is required to confirm the diagnosis. It is critical to perform a molecular genetic analysis when the imaging diagnosis is uncertain, particularly in simplex cases (i.e. a single occurrence in a family), in people with remarkably mild symptoms, or in individuals with atypical presentations. The main aim of this study is to determine the frequency of PKD1 gene mutations in Iranian patients with ADPKD diagnosis.MethodsGenomic DNA was extracted from blood samples from 22 ADPKD patients, who were referred to the Qaem Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. By using appropriate primers, 16 end exons of PKD1 gene that are regional hotspots, were replicated with PCR. Then, PCR products were subjected to DNA directional Sanger sequencing.ResultsThe DNA sequencing in the patients has shown that exons 35, 36 and 37 were non- polymorphic, and that most mutations had occurred in exons 44 and 45. In two patients, an exon-intron boundary mutation had occurred in intron 44. Most of the variants were missense and synonymous types.ConclusionIn the present study, we have shown the occurrence of nine novel missense or synonymous variants in PKD1 gene. These data could contribute to an improved diagnostic and genetic counseling in clinical settings.