Dendrobium officinale is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant. The stems of D. officinale contain mannan polysaccharides, which are promising bioactive polysaccharides for use as drugs. However, the genes involved in the biosynthesis of mannan polysaccharides in D. officinale have not yet been identified. In this study, four digital gene expression profiling analyses were performed on developing stems of greenhouse-grown D. officinale to identify such genes. Based on the accumulation of mannose and on gene expression levels, eight CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKEA genes (CSLA), which are highly likely to be related to the biosynthesis of bioactive mannan polysaccharides, were identified from the differentially expressed genes database. In order to further analyze these DoCSLA genes, a full-length cDNA of each was obtained by RACE. The eight genes, belonging to the CSLA family of the CesA superfamily, contain conserved domains of the CesA superfamily. Most of the genes, which were highly expressed in the stems of D. officinale, were related to abiotic stress. Our results suggest that the CSLA family genes from D. officinale are involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive mannan polysaccharides.