Canine kobuvirus (CaKoV), a newly described virus, is the causative agent of gastroenteritis in dogs. In this study, 57 fecal samples from dogs with diarrhea in Anhui Province, eastern China, were collected. Among these, five samples were identified to be infected with CaKoV, by polymerase chain reaction targeting the CaKoV 3D gene. The five CaKoV strains were subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The sequences of VP1 from the five CaKoV strains were 93.6%–96.1% identical to each other and 91.75%–97.95% identical to other reported CaKoV VP1 sequences. In addition, the complete genome of one strain was successfully amplified and sequenced. The genome consisted of 8223 nucleotides and shared 94.6%–97.0% nucleotide and 93.1%–94.0% amino acid sequence identity with other CaKoV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the CaKoV strain from Anhui Province was similar to other Chinese strains, and it was more closely related to feline and mouse kobuviruses than to sheep and bovine kobuviruses. Interestingly, all of the CaKoV-positive samples were coinfected with canine parvovirus. The finding of CaKoV infection in dogs with diarrhea and coinfection with canine parvovirus are a cause for concern and highlight the need for management and preventive measures.