Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), which kills approximately 2 million people a year despite current treatment options. A greater understanding of the biology of this bacterium is needed to better combat TB disease. The M. tuberculosis genome encodes as many as 15 adenylate cyclases, suggesting that cyclic AMP (cAMP) has an important, yet overlooked, role in mycobacteria. This study examined the effect of exogenous cAMP on protein expression in Mycobacterium bovis BCG grown under hypoxic versus ambient conditions. Both shaking and shallow standing cultures were examined for each atmospheric condition. Different cAMP-dependent changes in protein expression were observed in each condition by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Shaking low-oxygen cultures produced the most changes (12), while standing ambient conditions showed the fewest (2). Five upregulated proteins, Rv1265, Rv2971, GroEL2, PE_PGRS6a, and malate dehydrogenase, were identified from BCG by mass spectrometry and were shown to also be regulated by cAMP at the mRNA level in both M. tuberculosis H37Rv and BCG. To our knowledge, these data provide the first direct evidence for cAMP-mediated gene regulation in TB complex mycobacteria.