Icteric type hepatocellular carcinoma is rare, and a poor prognosis has been demonstrated in the past. We performed this study to re-evaluate prognosis since the availability of modern diagnostic modalities. Of 3921 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in our hospital, 9 patients who presented with tumor fragments in common bile duct and had a patent portal vein were submitted for analysis. Cholangiocarcinoma was suspected in 7 patients before the study was completed, and icteric type hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed in all 9 patients after serial studies that included serum alpha-fetoprotein levels, computed tomography, angiography, and histology. The prognosis was better in the 4 resectable patients (survival time 16, 31, 33, and 63 months, respectively), and was extremely poor for the 5 patients who received palliative treatment only (mean survival time, 4.5 months). Because of the apparently discrepant outcomes, this specific type of hepatocellular carcinoma should be kept in mind in areas where hepatocellular carcinomas are prevalent, and the suspected cases should be thoroughly investigated, because prognosis may be improved when resection is done at an earlier stage.