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Ice-Ocean Exchange Processes in the Jovian and Saturnian Satellites

  • Soderlund, Krista M.1
  • Kalousová, Klára2
  • Buffo, Jacob J.3
  • Glein, Christopher R.4
  • Goodman, Jason C.5
  • Mitri, Giuseppe6, 6
  • Patterson, G. Wesley7
  • Postberg, Frank8
  • Rovira-Navarro, Marc9, 10
  • Rückriemen, Tina11, 12
  • Saur, Joachim13
  • Schmidt, Britney E.3
  • Sotin, Christophe14
  • Spohn, Tilman12, 15
  • Tobie, Gabriel16
  • Van Hoolst, Tim17, 18
  • Vance, Steven D.14
  • Vermeersen, Bert9, 10
  • 1 The University of Texas at Austin, J.J. Pickle Research Campus, Bldg. 196, 10100 Burnet Road (R2200), Austin, TX, 78758-4445, USA , Austin (United States)
  • 2 Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic , Prague (Czechia)
  • 3 Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA , Atlanta (United States)
  • 4 Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, MA, USA , San Antonio (United States)
  • 5 Wheaton College, Norton, MA, USA , Norton (United States)
  • 6 Universita’ d’Annunzio, Pescara, Italy , Pescara (Italy)
  • 7 Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD, USA , Laurel (United States)
  • 8 Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany , Berlin (Germany)
  • 9 Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft, The Netherlands , Delft (Netherlands)
  • 10 NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Yerseke, The Netherlands , Yerseke (Netherlands)
  • 11 TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany , Berlin (Germany)
  • 12 DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Berlin, Germany , Berlin (Germany)
  • 13 University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany , Cologne (Germany)
  • 14 Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA , Pasadena (United States)
  • 15 International Space Science Institute, Bern, Switzerland , Bern (Switzerland)
  • 16 Université de Nantes, Nantes, France , Nantes (France)
  • 17 Royal Observatory of Belgium, Brussels, Belgium , Brussels (Belgium)
  • 18 KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium , Leuven (Belgium)
Published Article
Space Science Reviews
Publication Date
Jun 29, 2020
DOI: 10.1007/s11214-020-00706-6
Springer Nature


A growing number of satellites in the outer solar system likely have global oceans beneath their outer icy shells. While the presence of liquid water makes these ocean worlds compelling astrobiological targets, the exchange of heat and materials between the deep interior and the surface also plays a critical role in promoting habitable environments. In this article, we combine geophysical, geochemical, and geological observations of the Jovian satellites Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto as well as the Saturnian satellites Enceladus and Titan to summarize our current state of understanding of their interiors and surface exchange processes. Potential mechanisms for driving exchange processes upward from the ocean floor and downward from the satellite surface are then reviewed, which are primarily based on numerical models of ice shell and ocean dynamics and complemented by terrestrial analog studies. Future missions to explore these exo-oceans will further revolutionize our understanding of ice-ocean exchange processes and their implications for the habitability of these worlds.

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