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Hypoxia Downregulates LPP3 and Promotes the Spatial Segregation of ATX and LPP1 During Cancer Cell Invasion

Authors
  • harper, kelly
  • brochu-gaudreau, karine
  • saucier, caroline
  • dubois, claire m.
Publication Date
Sep 19, 2019
Source
MDPI
Keywords
Language
English
License
Green
External links

Abstract

Hypoxia is a common characteristic of advanced solid tumors and a potent driver of tumor invasion and metastasis. Recent evidence suggests the involvement of autotaxin (ATX) and lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPARs) in cancer cell invasion promoted by the hypoxic tumor microenvironment / however, the transcriptional and/or spatiotemporal control of this process remain unexplored. Herein, we investigated whether hypoxia promotes cell invasion by affecting the main enzymes involved in its production (ATX) and degradation (lipid phosphate phosphatases, LPP1 and LPP3). We report that hypoxia not only modulates the expression levels of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) regulatory enzymes but also induces their significant spatial segregation in a variety of cancers. While LPP3 expression was downregulated by hypoxia, ATX and LPP1 were asymmetrically redistributed to the leading edge and to the trailing edge, respectively. This was associated with the opposing roles of ATX and LPPs in cell invasion. The regulated expression and compartmentalization of these enzymes of opposing function can provide an effective way to control the generation of an LPA gradient that drives cellular invasion and migration in the hypoxic zones of tumors.

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