The DNA compacting and transfection properties of hyperbranched polylysines whose N-terminal amino groups were modified with histidine and arginine were studied. The histidine-modified hyperbranched polylysines were shown to provide higher efficacy of binding and transfection in comparison with unmodified or hyperbranched arginine-containing polylysines. This fact was explained by the intrinsic endosomolytic activity of the histidine-modified polymers. The dependence between the quantity of the amino acids that modified the terminal lysine residues in the hyperbranched polylysines, the efficacy of their DNA binding, and the transfection activity of the DNA complexes with the corresponding carriers was found. The possibility to increase the transfection activity of the DNA complexes with the hyperbranched polylysines by glycerin or the JTS-1 amphipathic nonapeptide was studied. At the same time, their simultaneous use was found to result in a transfection decrease.