The hydrophobicities of spores and vegetative cells of several species of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium were measured by using the bacterial adherence to hexadecane assay and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Although spore hydrophobicity varied among species and strains, the spores of each organism were more hydrophobic than the vegetative cells. The relative hydrophobicities determined by the two methods generally agreed. Sporulation media and conditions appeared to have little effect on spore hydrophobicity. However, exposure of spore suspensions to heat treatment caused a considerable increase in spore hydrophobicity. The hydrophobic nature of Bacillus and Clostridium spores suggests that hydrophobic interactions may play a role in the adhesion of these spores to surfaces.