Five children receiving central parenteral nutrition presented between the 6th and 16th day of renutrition with hydrocephalus unrelated to intercurrent neurologic disorder. Repeated determinations of plasma retinol and of the transport complex components made the proof of vitamin A intoxication in 2 cases. Vitamin A had been provided in the form of a water-soluble vitamin-solution incorporated in the nutrition mixture (doses: 1,500 micrograms and 3,000 micrograms retinol equivalent respectively). These 2 case reports have to be compared with 3 other cases of hydrocephalus occurring during total parenteral nutrition. One child presented with bilateral jugular thrombosis secondary to percutaneous venous approach trials, while the 2 other were probably within the framework of an accelerated weight recovery following nutritional marasmus.