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The Hybrid Power Plant: Optimal design and operation of battery energy storage as an addition to onshore wind farms in the Netherlands

  • Sijtsma, Lennard (author)
Publication Date
Apr 08, 2019
TU Delft Repository
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In the Netherlands, wind power has the highest potential for future development compared to alternatives such as solar PV and biomass. The intermittent nature of the wind power resource calls for novel approaches to supply and demand management, as well as power quality assurance. Energy storage technologies allow for the separation between power generation and power supply to the grid. The energy and power densities, efficiency and response times of secondary batteries make them highly suitable for utility scale application to wind farms. However, a knowledge gap exists on exact configurations of battery energy storage systems for wind farms within the existing power markets. This study proposes a hybrid power plant approach, combining an onshore wind farm with a battery energy storage system. Literature research identifies balance between power obligation and production as a main design criterium, along with the profitability of a configuration and operational strategy. A technical analysis establishes power fluctuation on multiple time scales as relevant wind power characteristics, and maximum depth of discharge, discharge rates and efficiency as important battery parameters. A detailed analysis of the Dutch power market structure identifies three accessible markets for trade: the Day Ahead Market, the primary reserve (FCR) and the secondary reserve (aFRR). For modelling and optimization purposes, FCR is not considered due to excessive uncertainties regarding bid acceptance and bid activation. The design phase of the study is charged with finding the optimal battery capacity for a given wind farm production, while assuring the obligation to the Day Ahead Market is met. A linear optimization model is developed with the objective to maximize the obtained revenue. It is shown that the optimal battery capacity scales with the power capacity of the wind farm. For a 60 MW wind farm, the optimal battery capacity lies within the range of 60 – 80 MWh. An operational model is designed based on the model of the plant established in the design phase, elaborated with a Model Predictive Control approach. Based on wind power generation forecasts, the algorithm is able to adjust the charge/discharge and imbalance settlement strategy continuously based on expected market price series. However, the low level of accuracy of the applied market price approximations lead to unprofitable results in all simulated cases. Market price approximations with increased accuracy, as well as reduction of battery installation costs may lead to profitable operation of a hybrid power plant. / Mechanical Engineering | Energy and Process Technology

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