ATPase complexes were reconstituted from homologous and heterologous combinations of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits of coupling factor ATPase TF1 of thermophilic bacterium PS3 and EF1 of Escherichia coli. TF1 and alpha beta gamma complex reconstituted from TF1 subunits were thermostable and activated by methanol, sodium dodecyl sulfate and anions and they were halophilic, whereas EF1 and its three-subunit complex did not show these properties. The hybrid ATPase alpha T beta T gamma E (complex of the alpha and beta subunits of TF1 and the gamma subunit of EF1) showed closely similar properties to TF1 except for thermostability, while alpha E beta E gamma T (alpha and beta from EF1 and gamma from TF1) had similar properties to EF1. These results suggest that alpha and/or beta is required for the properties of F1. The complex alpha E beta T gamma E showed similar properties to EF1 except for its optimum pH: this complex had a broad pH optimum at about pH 7, whereas EF1 had an optimum at pH 8.5. No hybrid complexes were thermostable, suggesting that all three subunits of TF1 are required for heat stability. These hybrids showed higher halophilicity than EF1, although they were less halophilic than TF1. The hybrid enzymes studied here are the first thermophilic-mesophilic hybrid enzymes obtained.