Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of surgical wound infections. The development of mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance by this and other bacterial pathogens has prompted the search for new approaches to treat infectious diseases. Hyaluronic acid binding peptides have been shown to modulate cellular trafficking during host responses and were assessed for their ability to treat and possibly prevent experimental surgical wound infections caused by S. aureus. Treatment with these peptides was highly efficacious in reducing the number of S. aureus cells at the wound site and ameliorated the inflammatory host response associated with these infections. These data suggest a novel approach for the treatment and prophylaxis of staphylococcal wound infections in the clinical setting.