We have identified novel interactions between the human (h)TATA-binding protein-associated factor TAFII55 and the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of the nuclear receptors for vitamin D3 (VDR) and thyroid hormone (TRα). Following expression in Cos cells, hTAFII55 interacts with the VDR and TRα LBDs in a ligand-independent manner whereas no interactions with the retinoid X receptors (RXRs) or with other receptors were observed. Deletion mapping indicates that hTAFII55 interacts with a 40-amino-acid region spanning α-helices H3 to H5 of the VDR and TRα LBDs but not with the equivalent highly related region of RXRγ. TAFII55 also interacts with chimeric receptors in which the H3-to-H5 region of RXRγ has been replaced with that of the VDR or TRα. Furthermore, replacement of two single amino acids of the RXRγ LBD with their VDR counterparts allows the RXRγ LBD to interact with hTAFII55 while the corresponding double substitution allows a much stronger interaction. In transfection experiments, the single mutated RXRγ LBDs activate transcription to fivefold higher levels than wild-type RXRγ while the double mutation activates transcription to a level comparable to that observed with the VDR. There is therefore a correlation between the ability of the modified RXRs to interact with hTAFII55 and transactivation. These results strongly suggest that the TAFII55 interactions with the modified RXR LBDs modulate transcriptional activation.