Human papillomavirus infection remains a great source of morbidity and mortality. Progress in understanding the structure of HPV and its pathogenesis has led to a wide variety of possible new treatment modalities to combat HPV-related disease. Most HPV infections (whether high risk or low risk) resolve without any medical intervention. Persistent or progressive disease, however, remains difficult to treat. Although currently available therapies have proved efficacious and tolerable in the treatment of nongenital and genital warts, no single therapy is uniformly effective in eradicating persistent HPV infection. Cytodestructive methods, such as cryotherapy, remain the primary treatment modality for nongenital warts. Immune response modifiers, such as imiquimod, currently show the greatest promise in treating HPV-induced anogenital lesions, both with respect to complete response and in preventing recurrence. Human papillomavirus infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the world, and cervical cancer still causes significant morbidity and mortality. Pap smear tests have greatly reduced the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in developed countries. Additional research will focus on primary and secondary prevention strategies. Vaccines against high-risk HPV types are promising modalities currently under investigation to prevent HPV infections and possibly to treat them.