Background. The interplay between female fertility and autoimmune diseases (AIDs) can involve HLA haplotypes and micronutrients. We analyzed the distribution of HLA-DQ2/-DQ8 in women with infertility or recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and possible associations with AIDs and micronutrient status. Methods. Consecutive women (n = 187) with infertility and RSA, and controls (n = 350) were included. All women were genotyped for HLA-DQ2 (DQA1*0201, A1*05, and B1*02) and -DQ8 (DQA1*03 and DQB1*0302) alleles. Serum 25(OH)D, VB12, folate, and ferritin were evaluated. Results. DQA1*05/B1*02 and the occurrence of at least one DQ2 allele were more prevalent among RSA and infertile women than controls. Infertile women showed lower 25(OH)D and higher prevalence of AIDs than RSA women. In the multivariate analysis, DQA1*05/B1*02 was associated with a significantly higher risk of AIDs in infertile women, and DQA1*05 was independently associated with both 25(OH)D deficiency and AIDs. In RSA women, the presence of AIDs was associated with a significantly higher risk of 25(OH)D deficiency. Conclusion. Our findings showed, for the first time, a higher proportion of DQ2 alleles in infertile and RSA women as compared to controls. Predisposing DQ2 alleles are independent risk factors for AIDs and 25(OH)D deficiency in infertile women and could represent biomarkers for performing early detection of women requiring individually tailored management.