This was a retrospective study of HIV-infected children aged 0-12 years attending the King Edward VIII Hospital in Durban, South Africa over a 5-year period (January 1996 to December 2001) with culture-proven urinary tract infection (UTI). UTI was defined as the presence of a single bacterial growth of >10(5) colony-forming units/ml in a clean-catch, mid-stream urine sample or >10(3) organisms/ml in a catheter or suprapubic aspirate of urine. HIV/AIDS was diagnosed in accordance with World Health Organization and/or Centers for Disease Control criteria. Comparison between HIV-positive and HIV-negative children with UTI was done using the chi2 and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Of the 55 children recruited into the study, 29 (52.1%) were HIV-positive and 26 (47.3%) HIV-negative. Escherichia coli was isolated in 50 (87.2%) children. Clinical presentation, aetiological agents, response to therapy and renal function were similar in both groups. This study showed no significant impact of HIV/AIDS on the presentation of UTI in children.