The antibody response of 30 volunteers vaccinated with a complex of group B polysaccharide and outer membrane vesicles (OMV) from serotype 2a Neisseria meningitidis and of 3 individuals who received a placebo vaccine was determined by immunoblotting. OMV were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis and electrotransferred to nitrocellulose filters. Binding of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM antibodies in the human sera to OMV components was detected with class-specific peroxidase-conjugated antibodies. The immunoblotting results were also related to the bactericidal activity of the sera and the meningococcal carrier status of the volunteers. Before vaccination weakly reactive bands in the molecular weight range of 140,000 to 10,000 were observed on the blots. Sera from carriers showed more marked bands. Individual patterns of increased reactivity were seen 6 weeks after vaccination. The main immunoreactive components of OMV corresponded to a molecular weight of 43,000 (class 1 protein), 30,000 (class 5 proteins), and 22,000. IgG antibodies in postvaccination sera of high bactericidal titers showed distinct binding to the 43,000-molecular-weight antigen. Meningococcal carriers had antibodies against an antigen of 22,000 molecular weight; in polyacrylamide gels this component did not stain with Coomassie brilliant blue or silver. The marked binding of IgG antibodies to the class 5 proteins decreased considerably between weeks 6 and 25 after vaccination. Periodate oxidation of OMV abolished the binding of IgG antibodies to the class 5 proteins, whereas the antigenicity of the 43,000-molecular-weight (class 1 protein) and 22,000-molecular-weight antigens was unaffected.