Beta-defensins contribute to host innate defense against various pathogens, including viruses, although the details of their roles in innate immune cells are unclear. We previously reported that human β-defensin 2 (HBD 2) activates primary innate immunity against viral infection and suggested that it plays a role in the induction of the adaptive immune response. We analyzed the mechanisms by which HBD 2 primes innate antiviral immunity and polarized activation of macrophage-like THP-1 cells using the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) spike protein (S RBD) as a model antigen. The expression of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (Nod2), type I interferons, (IFNs), and proinflammatory mediators was enhanced in S RBD-HBD 2-treated THP-1 cells. S RBD-HBD 2 treatment also enhanced phosphorylation and activation of receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 and IFN regulatory factor 3 compared to S RBD alone. Finally, HBD 2-conjugated S RBD interacted with C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), and Nod2 was involved in HBD 2-mediated CCR2 signaling, which was associated with the activation and M1 polarization of THP-1 cells. Therefore, HBD 2 promotes CCR2-mediated Nod2 signaling, which induces production of type I IFNs and an inflammatory response, and enhances primary innate immunity leading to an effective adaptive immune response to HBD 2-conjugated antigen.